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Located in Haret El Kedis Guirguis, Misr El Kadima, the church is erected in a central location in the Candles Palace known as the Roman Fort. Some refer the building to the 6th century AD, others to the 8th century AD. According to Penslip, the French scholar, he was told as Saad Ibn Batrik states, that the church was erected under Abdel Aziz Ibn Marwan reign.
The collective memory affirms that the original grotto where the Holy Family escaped and hide from the Roman emperor is the actual location of the church built to commemorate the visit of Mary, Joseph and Jesus. Dr.Soad Maher, on the other hand, considers the grotto as a sanctuary one of the priests carved to retreat during the early Islamic periods as attested by similar cells carved in the mountain in El Fustat area.
The church is dedicated to Sergius is subject to contradiction. One proclaims to be the martyr who sacrificed his life with his parents and sister. He is celebrated by the church on the 7th of February while the other states that St. Sergius is a saddle maker in Maximianos Palace, the Roman emperor. The church is celebrating him on the 7th of October. Both martyrs are highly considered by Oriental Christians. An important monastery built in Moscow, Russia is dedicated to St.Sergius.
St. Sergius church was the centre for the election of the Patriarch till the 12th century AD namely Shenouda 850/861 AD and Efraham 948/968 AD. Patriarch Shenouda who set the basis of the Papal messages was elected in this church in 859 AD. A competition raised between St. Sergius Church and El Moallakah Church that ended for the benefit of the latter when Christozwawes was the Patriarch.
The church witnessed important events as Pope Mikhail sentenced Shenouda, Misr El Kadima Bishop and deprived him from his functions. Bishop Shenouda ordered two services in two churches at the same time, which contradicts Coptic rules. He headed the Mass in El Moallakah and Abou Sergua, such services are only allowed in Christmas and Easter. Celebration for his successor were held in St.Sergius and continued in Haret Zweila Church.
In 749 AD, the church was badly damaged by El Fustat fire but was lately renovated during Haroun El Rachid reign as attested in St. Marc's Bibliography when he had asked El Wali to renew all Churches of the area in 799/ 819 AD.
Renovation occurred again in the church during El Aziz Bi Allah reign as mentioned by Saweris Ibn El Mokafae and Abou Saleh the Armenian. According to Ibn El Mokafae, another restoration occurred during El Zaher Leezaz Din Allah reign. The general planning of the church consists of a uniform rectangle Basilica style. The entrance leads to a vestibule then the nave and two aisles. The chorus is well seen and the three chancels are equipped each with an altar. The central one is topped by a wooden dome standing over four marbled columns while the rest of the ceilings are plane in the entrance and the vestibule, pointed in the choir and the central chancel. In the western side of the nave lye a sank and the baptistery equipped with a water fountain and surrounded by a wooden decorated screen. The oldest wooden altar was found in this church and is actually in the Coptic Museum; it dates back to the 6th century when the church was built.